Icon of SDG 13 Icon of SDG 15 Icon of SDG 17

Managing the Human-Wildlife interface to sustain the flow of agro-ecosystem services and prevent illegal wildlife trafficking in the Kgalagadi and Ghanzi Drylands

Natural resources management in the Kalahari landscape is characterised by competition and conflict between conservation goals, economic development and livelihoods. Home to large herds of angulates and iconic predators, the landscape was dominated by low-density wildlife with hunter-gatherer livelihoods until borehole farming enabled cattle ranching a few decades ago. The consequent rangeland degradation and ecosystem fragmentation threatens wildlife and economic development. Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) meant to support wildlife-based economic activities and secure migratory corridors linking the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and the Central Kalahari Game Reserve continue to be lost to livestock encroachment, due to delayed gazettement. Wildlife is under additional threat from poaching, wildlife poisoning and illegal wildlife trade (IWT). The recent ban on hunting has reduced benefits from CBNRM (which in the context of Botswana has largely been based on consumptive use (i.e. hunting) of wildlife, arguably reducing incentives for conservation. Stakeholders lack the planning tools, institutional coordination and operational capacities to balance competing needs and optimise environment, social and economic outcomes. In particular, there is weak coordination in tackling poaching, wildlife poisoning and IVVT, weak capacities for improving rangeland management in the communal lands and limited incentives for local communities to protect wildlife. The project will remove these barriers using the following strategies: Coordinating capacity for combating wildlife crime/trafficking and enforcement of wildlife policies and regulations at district, national and international levels (Component l); Incentives and systems for wildlife protection by communities increase financial returns from natural resources exploitation and reduce human wildlife conflicts, securing livelihoods and biodiversity in the Kalahari landscape (Component 2); Integrated landscape planning in the conservation areas and SLM practices in communal lands secure wildlife migratory corridors and increase productivity of rangelands respectively, reducing competition between land-uses and increasing ecosystem integrity of the Kalahari ecosystem (Component 3); and, Gender mainstreaming, knowledge management, monitoring and evaluation (Component 4).



Project start date:

January 2017

Estimated end date:

December 2022

Focus area:

  • eradicate poverty in all its forms and dimensions
  • Project office:

    UNDP in Botswana

    Implementing partner:

    Min of Env, Wildlife,& Tourism

    Full project information  

    Funding Support by

    Donor name

  • Global Environment Fund Truste
  • Amount contributed


    Delivery in previous fiscal year

    2020 $178,062

    2019 $466,758

    2018 $463,882

    UNDP Around the world

    You are at UNDP Botswana 
    Go to UNDP Global