Natural resources management in the Kalahari landscape is characterised by competition and conflict between conservation goals, economic development and livelihoods. Home to large herds of angulates and iconic predators, the landscape was dominated by low-density wildlife with hunter-gatherer livelihoods until borehole farming enabled cattle ranching a few decades ago. The consequent rangeland degradation and ecosystem fragmentation threatens wildlife and economic development. Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) meant to support wildlife-based economic activities and secure migratory corridors linking the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and the Central Kalahari Game Reserve continue to be lost to livestock encroachment, due to delayed gazettement. Wildlife is under additional threat from poaching, wildlife poisoning and illegal wildlife trade (IWT). The recent ban on hunting has reduced benefits from CBNRM (which in the context of Botswana has largely been based on consumptive use (i.e. hunting) of wildlife, arguably reducing incentives for conservation. Stakeholders lack the planning tools, institutional coordination and operational capacities to balance competing needs and optimise environment, social and economic outcomes. In particular, there is weak coordination in tackling poaching, wildlife poisoning and IVVT, weak capacities for improving rangeland management in the communal lands and limited incentives for local communities to protect wildlife. The project will remove these barriers using the following strategies: Coordinating capacity for combating wildlife crime/trafficking and enforcement of wildlife policies and regulations at district, national and international levels (Component l); Incentives and systems for wildlife protection by communities increase financial returns from natural resources exploitation and reduce human wildlife conflicts, securing livelihoods and biodiversity in the Kalahari landscape (Component 2); Integrated landscape planning in the conservation areas and SLM practices in communal lands secure wildlife migratory corridors and increase productivity of rangelands respectively, reducing competition between land-uses and increasing ecosystem integrity of the Kalahari ecosystem (Component 3); and, Gender mainstreaming, knowledge management, monitoring and evaluation (Component 4).